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Revealing inherent quantum interference and entanglement of a Dirac Fermion

W. NingR.-H. ZhengY. Xia ...+6 S. Zheng
Nov 2022
摘要
The Dirac equation is critical to understanding the universe, and plays animportant role in technological advancements. Compared to the stationarysolution, the dynamical evolution under the Dirac Hamiltonian is lessunderstood, exemplified by Zitterbewegung. Although originally predicted inrelativistic quantum mechanics, Zitterbewegung can also appear in someclassical systems, which leads to the important question of whetherZitterbewegung of Dirac Fermions is underlain by a more fundamental anduniversal interference behavior without classical analogs. We here reveal suchan interference pattern in phase space, which underlies but goes beyondZitterbewegung, and whose nonclassicality is manifested by the negativity ofthe phase-space quasiprobability distribution, and the associatedpseudospin-momentum entanglement. We confirm this discovery by numericalsimulation and an on-chip experiment, where a superconducting qubit and aquantized microwave field respectively emulate the internal and externaldegrees of freedom of a Dirac particle. The measured quasiprobabilitynegativities well agree with the numerical simulation. Besides being offundamental importance, the demonstrated nonclassical effects are useful inquantum technology.
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