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Which sources are the dominant Galactic cosmic-ray accelerators?

Jacco Vink (Anton Pannekoek InstituteGRAPPAUniversity of Amsterdam)
Dec 2022
摘要
Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been considered to be the dominant sourceof Galactic cosmic rays, which implied that they provided most of the energy topower cosmic rays as well as being PeVatrons. The lack of evidence for PeVcosmic rays in SNRs, as well as theoretical considerations, has made thisscenario untenable. At the same time the latest LHAASO and other gamma-rayresults suggest that PeVatrons lurk inside starforming regions. Here I will discuss why SNRs should still be considered the main sources ofGalactic cosmic rays at least up to 10 TeV, but that the cosmic-ray data allowfor a second component of cosmic rays with energies up to several PeV. Thissecond component could be a subset of supernovae/SNRs, reacceleration insidestarforming regions, or pulsars. As a special case I show that the recentobservations of Westerlund 1 by H.E.S.S. suggest a low value of the diffusioncoefficient inside this region, which is, together with an Alfv\'en speed > 100km/s, a prerequisite for making a starforming region collectively a PeVatrondue to second order Fermi acceleration.
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