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Membrane domain formation induced by binding/unbinding of curvature-inducing molecules onto both membrane surfaces

Hiroshi Noguchi
Jul 2022
摘要
The domain formation of curvature-inducing molecules, such as peripheral ortransmembrane proteins and conical surfactants, is studied in thermalequilibrium and nonequilibrium steady states using meshless membranesimulations. These molecules can bind onto either surface of a bilayer membraneand also move to the opposite leaflet by a flip-flop. In symmetric conditionsfor the two leaflets, the membrane domains form checkerboard patterns inaddition to stripe and spot patterns. The unbound membrane stabilizes thevertices of the checkerboard. In asymmetric conditions, the domains formhexagonal and thread-like domains. In the nonequilibrium steady states, a flowof the binding molecules between the upper and lower solutions can occur viathe flip-flop.
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