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Waveform Design for Joint Sensing and Communications in Millimeter-Wave and Low Terahertz Bands

Tianqi MaoJiaxuan ChenQi WangChong HanZhaocheng WangGeorge K. Karagiannidis
Jun 2021
The convergence of sensing and communication in the millimeter-wave (mmWave)and low terahertz (THz) bands has been envisioned as a promising technology,since it incorporates high-rate data transmission of hundreds of Gbps andmm-level radar sensing in a spectrum- and cost-efficient manner, by sharingboth the frequency and hardware resources. However, the joint radar sensing andcommunication (JRC) system faces considerable challenges in the mmWave andlow-THz scale, due to the peculiarities of the propagation channel andradio-frequency (RF) front ends. To this end, the waveform design for the JRCsystems in mmWave and low-THz bands with ultra-broad bandwidth is investigatedin this paper. Firstly, by considering the JRC design based on the co-existenceconcept, where both functions operate in a time-domain duplex (TDD) manner, anovel multi-subband quasi-perfect (MS-QP) sequence, composed of multipleperfect subsequences on different subbands, is proposed for target sensing,which achieves accurate target ranging and velocity estimation, whilst onlyrequiring cost-efficient low-rate analog-to-digital converters (A/Ds) forsequence detection. Furthermore, the root index of each perfect subsequence isdesigned to eliminate the influence of strong Doppler shift on radar sensing.Finally, a data-embedded MS-QP (DE-MS-QP) waveform is constructed throughtime-domain extension of the MS-QP sequence, generating null frequency pointson each subband for data transmission. Unlike the co-existence-based JRC systemin TDD manner, the proposed DE-MS-QP waveform enables simultaneousinterference-free sensing and communication, whilst inheriting all the meritsfrom MS-QP sequences. Numerical results validate the superiority of theproposed waveforms regarding the communication and sensing performances,hardware cost as well as flexibility of the resource allocation between thedual functions.