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Understanding the systematic differences in extractions of the proton electric form factors at low-$Q^2$

Jingyi ZhouVladimir KhachatryanHaiyan GaoSimon GorbatyDouglas Higinbotham
Cornell University - arXiv
Oct 2021
摘要
Systematic differences exist between values of the proton's electric form factors in the low-$Q^2$ region extracted by different experimental and theoretical groups, though they are all making use of basically the same electron-proton scattering data. To try understand the source of these differences, we make use of the analytically well-behaved rational (N=1, M=1) function, a predictive function that can be reasonably used for extrapolations at $Q^{2} \rightarrow 0$. First, we test how well this deceptively simple two-parameter function describes the extremely complex and state-of-the-art dispersively improved chiral effective field theory calculations. Second, we carry out a complete re-analysis of the 34 sets of eletron-proton elastic scattering cross-section data of the Mainz A1 Collaboration with its unconstrained 31 normalization parameters up to $Q^{2} = 0.5~{\rm (GeV/c)^{2}}$. We find that subtle shifts in the normalization parameters can result in relatively large changes in the extracted physical qualities. As a final check of the results of this extraction, we compare it to the PRad data that was not included in the regression and find that with the well-behaved analytic function the extracted results, both charge form factor and charge radius, of the two sets of data become consistent.
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