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Experimental evidence of detailed balance in granular systems

Xulai SunYinqiao WangYujie WangRaphael BlumenfeldJie Zhang
arXiv: Soft Condensed Matter
May 2021
摘要
We test experimentally a recent surprising prediction that the population out-of-equilibrium dynamics of cell orders in sheared dense planar granular systems converge to steady states that satisfy detailed balance. Not only do we corroborate this prediction in cyclically sheared systems but we also find that detailed balance is satisfied in systems of any density, well beyond the theoretical prediction. We show that the structural statistics in each cycle are uncorrelated and that the convergence to detailed balance on increasing the number of cycles is rapid. This allows us to interpret the cycles as an ensemble of independent systems and so extend our conclusions to systems much larger than our experimental one. The rapid convergence to these states with system size also suggests that this phenomenon can be observed in relatively small systems.
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